E-learning concepts - Table of Content



Aims of learning Learning Objectives

When you have completed this session, you should be able to

• discuss the competences defined in Bloom-taxonomy and related to e-learning
• interpret the concept of e-learning competences related to my pedagogical practice

This flower was drawn by two Canadian researchers (B. Holmes, J. Gardner, 2006. [1]). In this, they collect the competences which are needed to take advantage of the options for learning provided by the worldwide web. This is one model of competences – there are competing models. E-learning taxonomy

According to Holmes and Gardener, it will become difficult to imagine learning without cooperation on the net.

Key issues are:
• Searching within online information,
• selecting the elements effectively for our needs among the huge amount of information saved on the WWW
• becoming productive members of some communities organized on the Internet and
• helping others to learn.
"e-Learning requires different types of engagement, categorized in the framework of key practices or skills illustrated in the petals of the 'e-learning flower'."
The "e-learning petals" recall Bloom’s taxonomy [2], but while the different competences have hierarchic structure in Bloom, the Canadian authors say activities related to e-learning are often done simultaneously or parallel and so competences develop, or can be developed, in parallel with each other.
Note: the radial nature of the ‘flower petals’ imply that there is no hierarchy within this framework. In any one instance, the practical activity undertaken by the learner may involve only one or perhaps several of the actions or skills denoted in the figure. While it might be possible to suggest levels of complexity to associate with the elements of this framework, it is likely that such a consideration will be irrelevant. It will be the actual context and the learner's needs and aspirations that will determine which practice or skill is appropriate.

The competences identified are:
search & select - identifying the sources where the information can be found and then selecting the most relevant.
• explore - discovering information while browsing without any concrete aim that might match our interest or meet our needs.
test - the online information might be published in special forms, such as simulations and games, giving an opportunity to the learner to try out the different cases. This interactive engagement offers them the possibility to interact, to change the conditions related to their study.
analyze and synthesize - the learner should be able to analyze the different suggestions offered to solve certain problems, and than they should synthesize them to give an answer to specific questions.
collaborate and discuss - the networking platform offers new ways for collaboration. The new generation - sitting in the today's classrooms - is always ‘connected’. The potential of articulating ideas with others through the internet connections, and gathering reflections from others, has considerably increased learning options in recent years.
understand and apply - based on collected information – through reading lessons, discussion, analysis and synthesis – the learner reaches a higher level in solving problems; he or she develops deeper understanding and an ability to apply this new skill in making decisions
create and promote - e-learning offers new opportunities for learners; they can easily create their own content and share knowledge, through networks, in the form of digital learning objects. Using mechanisms for accessing, storing and retrieving the information they can benefit from the experiences and knowledge of others, hence fundamentally changing the learning process. Technical innovations can make it easier for the teachers to author and publish digital content, and to invite and to promote students to take part in collective creative work.

Similar ideas were developed in Hungary in 1997 (Bessenyei, 1997), although not with respect to learner competence analysis but with respect to the analysis of teacher competences. Dilemmas raised about the development of e-learning are enhanced given that more than a decade has passed since this article was published, and the questions raised then are still current.

"The widespread application of new information processing tools raises many different issues relating directly to teachers’ education. Students majoring in pedagogy will work in an environment where they must give answers to many practical problems."

• How to process, maintain data?
• How to work with search engines?
• How to use computers’ processing capacity for statistics?
• What sort of education programs can be found on the net, and how are they found?
• How can a syllabus be created from information on the worldwide web?
• What conversation techniques can involve children’s life experiences?
• How can cooperative learning be organized between network systems?
• How can interactive contacts be maintained with other schools, parents, local and central education management and what are the opportunities of network connections when being involved in local decision making processes? How can the potential that the students have more experience in the digital world than many of the teachers be utilized? How can their experience be utilized in terms of pedagogy? " [3]

Exercise Excercises

1. Is this proposition timely? Are the competences detailed on the petals really important for your student to be successful in learning? Can you identify examples from your pedagogical practice aimed at improving the listed competences of your students? Write your thoughts about this in your blog.

2. Are the questions - asked by Istvan Bessenyei - timely? Should teachers be able to answer these questions while educating the members of the next generation? Please share your opinion with us writing it into your blog.


[1] Bryan Holmes, John Gardner: E-learning concepts and practice, SAGE publications, 2006
[2] According to Bloom-taxonomy (Bloom, 1956) from realization through more complex levels of knowledge we get to the uppermost level, the evaluating level. According to the model, the hierarchic levels are:
• knowledge (repeating, definition, organization)
• comprehension (description, explanation, definition, realization, selection, translation)
• application (application, practice, presentation, illustration)
• analyzing (classification, comparison)
• synthesis (construction, production, planning, handling, organization, recommendation )
• evaluation (decision, support, value definition, evaluation, description)
See details of Bloom - taxonomy here: http://course.tenegen.eu/pluginfile.php/1566/mod_data/content/1951/Bloom_taxonomy.doc
[3] István Bessenyei: Világháló és leépítés, Educatio, 1997 winter issue.